MONUMENTS IN PRAKASAM

 

Monument No: 1

Monument Name: ANCIENT MOUNDS

Location: Kanuparti

Brief History:
The mounds here mark the site of a Buddhist tirtha. These mounds were also subjected to large-scale vandalism as many other sites. One of the mounds contains a stupa and a black marble ayaka pillar. The other mounds are a strewn with bricks. The Isvara temple in the village contains many Buddhist antiquities. Many other temples in the village also contain Buddhist antiquities.

Monument No: 2

Monument Name: A GROUP OF EIGHT ROCK-CUT TEMPLES IN BHAIRAVAKONDA HILL

Location: Kottapalli

Brief History:
These cave temples are eight in number excavated in a granite rocky hill locally known a Bhairavakonda. All are dedicated to Lord Siva and most of them are facing east. These are similar in style and architecture to the rock-cut monuments of Pallava period with certain Rashtrakuta-Chalukyan features. On architectural grounds they fell in two groups the first four starting from northern point are simple shrine-cells without a mandapa in front. The shrine entrance is plain openings guarded by standing dvarapalas on either side. There is a provision for rock-cut nandi on the floor of the open cutting in front of each shrine. In the central cave, besides the usual Linga-Pitha, the back wall containing a robust expressive relief carving of a Trimurti figure in relief. It recalls the Mahesa figure of Elephanta cave. At the northern end of the rock boulder two fine figures carved in bold relief – a eight handed Hari Hra and ten-handed slim figure of dancing Siva overlooking the water falls are of great attraction and perfect examples of Hindu iconography. These trimurthi grihas (cut-in-caves) like the Pallava ones at Mandagapattu and Mamallapuram, are a class by themselves. On purely architectural grounds they appear to range in date from 8th to 9th century AD.

Monument No: 3

Monument Name: CHOLA TEMPLE

Location: Motupalle

Brief History:
The Virabhadra svami temple consists of sanctum, vestibule and mukha mandapa. There is no image in the sanctum. Mahamandapa and the nandi mandapa are of later date. There are a number of inscriptions engraved on the pillars and walls of the temple in Telugu, Tamil and Sanskrit languages. Some of the inscriptions dated to the reign of Ganapathi Deva (1198 to 1261 AD) and refer the tax remissions on articles of export and import done through the port of Motupalli and the concessions given to the merchants in sea trade. They also indicate that Motupalli was a famous sea port and was evidently the same as 'mutfili' mentioned by Marcopolo, the famous Italian traveller.

Monument No: 4

Monument Name: ANCIENT MOUND

Location: Pedaganjam

Brief History:
The early historical Buddhist mound is practically bisected by a rivulet feeder of Gundlakamma. Among the antiquities found here include bricks of 54 x 26 x 9 cm in size, limestone sculptures, inscriptions and pottery of the early historical period. Close to the above on the Right Bank is another ancient mound locally known as 'Phirangula dinne'. It has also yielded similar pottery, beads of semi-precious stones, brickbats, bangles etc. The place is noted for the pillar inscription of the times of the Ikshvaku king Sri Virapurushadatta dated to the 3rd century AD.

Monument No: 5

Monument Name:PITIKESWARA GROUP OF TEMPLES

Location: Pittikayagulla

Brief History:
This group consists of three temples dedicated to Pittikesvara, Saptamatrika and Chandikesvara, besides a unique apsidal one dedicated to Ganesa. All are brick built noted for their moulded adhistanas with pilasters, a feature derived from post-Gupta temple style.

PITTIKESVARA TEMPLE:
This temple consists of garbha-griha an antarala, ardhamandapa and mahamandapa. It enshrines a linga of black basalt and the sikhara is built in receding tiers of moulded bricks. It appears that the mahamandapa was added at a later date. The chaitya-window arches with the human head inside. Carved on the pillars of the mahamandapa in an interesting feature, some of which contain even a Siva linga. There is an early inscription at the entrance to the main shrine in Telugu characters of the 7th-8th century A.D. issued by Chalukyan King.

SAPTAMATRIKA SHRINE:
This is a smaller rectangular shrine designed to house the long Saptamatrika panel. This panel was carved in half relief.

CHANDESVARA SHRINE:
This shrine enshrines Chandikesvara seated in his characteristic pose with Karanda makuta holding the axe in one hand and the cobra in the other. It resembles the Pallava sculptures of Vijayawada museum.

Monument No: 6

Monument Name: ANCIENT SITE

Location: Pusalapadu

Brief History:
It is an extensive Neolithic site yielded on the surface, stone mace-heads, polished stone axes, shreds of burnished Grey and black painted red wares and the Megalithic Black-and-red ware, besides a good number of steatite disc shaped beads.


Monument No:7

Monument Name: RAMALINGESVARA GROUP OF TEMPLES

Location: Satiavel

Brief History:
RAMALINGESWARA TEMPLE:
This temple consists of a garbha-griha, antarala, and mukha mandapa, all raised on a common adhistana. The garbha-griha enshrines a linga in the center on a square pitha. The door frame of the sanctum is well decorated. The deva koshthas at the cardinals on the wall exterior of the sanctum and mukha mandapa display a remarkable veneer, and are of great iconographic significance. The pillar of maha-mandapa contain inscribed records on their square shafts. The one at the southeast corner had revealed a label inscription 'Sri Utpatti pidugu' with a lanchana of a club below. The agra-mandapa is a later addition, perhaps during the post-Chola and or Vijayanagara period. The sukanasi portion has a tandava Siva accompanied by instrument music played by ganas.

BHIMA-LINGESVARA TEMPLE:
This is a compact shrine with a square garbha-griha and vestibule in front. The adhistana reveals gajamundas and bharaputras. On the exterior of garbha-griha, niches contain Durga, Lingodbhavamurti and Siva. The super structure above the sanctum is of the vesara style crowned by an amalaka stupi. An apsidal temple at the southeast corner is among this group of temples, a noteworthy example meant for Ganesa.