MONUMENTS IN HYDERABAD
Monument No: 1
Monument Name: CHARMINAR
This is an imposing structure marked by four tall minars, which give it, its name each raising to a height of 56 Meters was completed in 1591-92 A.D. (A.H. 1000) by Mohammad Quali Kutub Shah, the fifthruler of the Kutub Shahi dynasty of Golkonda. It is believed that it was intended to commemorate the cessation of an epidemic of plague. The architectural beauty of the edifice lies in its plan 30 Mts. square with four imposing arches; each of a span of 11 Meters surmounted by terraced balconies in reading series. The profuseness of stucco decoration designs and arrangement of the balustrades and the balconies are remarkable. An interesting feature within the Charminar is the mosque on the second floor facing east. 149 steps have to be climbed for reaching the top. The Charminar is a stately gateway built in the middle of the town. Its four arches face the four middle of the town. Its four arches face the four principle thoroughfares of the city. Erected to provide a fitting environment to royal pomp and pegantry. The Charminar is a square building with four spreading archways and 186 high minars or turrets at each corner. Though many other Islamic edifices were erected in the Deccan, one attained its elegance and strength, its dignity and its graceful.
Monument No: 2
Monument Name: GOLCONDA FORT
The Historic Golkonda Fort is about 11 km. west of Hyderabad city. The name originated from Telugu Golla Konda or Shepherd's Hill. In the annals of medieval Deccan, Golkonda with its extensive and elevated fortifications is a landmark governing the destiny of the South. The fort originally belonged to the Kakatiyas of Warangal. This is testified by the over-door carvings and relief work in stucco consisting of lions, peacocks, griffins and lotus at the entrance of Balahissar. In 1363 A.D., it was ceeded to the Bahmanis. After the downfall of the Bahmanis (1518 A.D.) it became the capital of the Qutub Shahi kings (1518-1687). The credit for founding the city of Hyderabad on a grid pattern, raising the charming Charminar in the midst of the old city and literary flourish both in Telugu and Persian languages, owe to the great Mohd.Quli Qutb Shah (1586 A.D). Aurangazeb annexed it to the Moghul Empire (1687). After the death of Aurangazeb in 1707 A.D., the young Asaf Jah declared himself as Nizamul-mulk. The Nizams held sway over Hyderabad untill 1948 - the scions ranked "the richest men in the world". Golkonda has three lines of fortification walls and the circumference of the outer fortification is about 61/2 knm. containing 8-gates and 87-Bastions. There is a ditch around the outer fortified wall and all the bastions were mounted with guns, rendering the fort one of the strongest in the Medieval Deccan. The citadel (Bala Hissar) is within an inner fortification.
The important palacial units are the imposing Silai Khana ( a three-storeyed Asla Khana armoury building), Nagina bagh, guard lines, Akkanna-Madanna Offices, Ramdas Jail, Durbar Hall, ruins of Ambarkhana, Baradari on the summit, an inner cordon wall, and Masjid were raised by Ibrahim Qutub Shah (1550-1580 A.D). Before the royal palaces, right on the summit of the hill in a cave (within builders) is a Mahakali temple. The tap water mechanism in the inner city of Golkonda is unique and found nowhere else in the world at that time. Water was raised by an ingenious system through glazed pipes and Persian wheels for storage in overhead tombs to serve the various Mahals within high walled palaces (Raja and Rani Mahal), other apartments and roof garden, etc.
The town of Golkonda situated within, was one of the most splendid cities well known for its extensive trade in diamonds and large game of which mention is made by Marco Polo, an Italian traveller (1292). The lay-out of the palaces, gardens, Durbar halls, mosques, temples and the water supply and drainage system arranged through earthern clay pipes fitted into the walls of the palaces, show the unique planning inside the citadel. An interesting feature is that the echo of hand clapping at the main entrance below is audible even on the top of the citadel, i.e. Baradari, located on the peak of the hillock. It is believed that this was deliberately contrived to convey message to the top most guards regarding visiting personalities. From the imposing Baradari at the pinnacle the old ruins within Golkonda Qila and domes of the Qutub Shahi tombs enthrall the visitor.