MONUMENTS IN YSR KADAPA

Brief History :
This beautiful edifice consists of an apsidal central shrine with a mahamandapa in front, which rests upon four exquisitely carved pillars. The style of the carvings is assignable to later Chalukya period. Some of the themes carved on the pillars are related to the antarala and the sixteen pillared mahamandapa. The door jambs of the antarala and the Garbha-griha are provided with the figures of Jaya, Vijay as Dvarapalas. The central four pillars of mahamandapa are beautifully carved and ornamented. On stylistic grounds the date of this temple may be assigned to late Chalukyan or early Yadava period i.e., 12th century A.D.

The fort fell into the hands of Sultans of Golkonda in 1646 AD. In 1758 AD., it was held by one Abdul Wahab Khan of Kurnool brother of Nawab of Karnataka. In 1782 Haider Ali compelled, the place to surrender under Mysore rule until the treaty of Srirangapatna in 1792 AD., local tradition speaks that it is from Chandragiri. The last of Vijayanagara King Sriranga IV signed the original documents granting to the East India Company the strip of land to construct the Fort St. George at Madras in 1639 AD. Chandragiri appears to be favourite resort for the Vijayanagara rulers. Some of the great Kavyas such as Manucharitra, Amuktamalyada were believed to have been composed here. The great and the most popular poet in Sri Krishnadevarayas court namely 'Tenali Rama Krishna' was claimed to be a native of this place. His descendents still live in Chandragiri. As a testimony to the past glory, palaces of Raja and Rani Mahals and inner fort are imposing edifices. The bigger Raja mahal, the triple storeyed edifices. The bigger Raja mahal, the triple storeyed edifice, possibly quite imposing and well balanced with top most storeyed closed by triple gopuras of typical dravidian style-a bigger one surmounting the darbar hall. The Rani mahal is like a smaller double storeyed place very gracefully rendered with frontal arched openings full of a stucco figure work these structures are built in rough stone but lime plastered. A curious feature in the construction of these two places is the absence of the useage of wood in the construction for the stone ceilings are panelled and colour coated to resemble the wooden frames. Recent clearance by the side of the Rani mahal has brought to light the foundational remains of a small pushkarani and in front of it several palatial buildings in stone with typical gaja vyala banisters in the stepped descents etc. Rani mahal itself revealed a moulded adhistana of the kapotabandha class with a padma-jagati resembling that of the temple mouldings.

Monument No: 34

Monument Name: VIGHNESVARASVAMI TEMPLE

Location:Chilamakuru

Brief History:
This temple for Vinayaka is of Gajaprishtha style. It consists of an apsidal shrine with a mahamandapa in front. The architecture and the carvings are similar to that of Agastesvara temple. The kudus on the sikhara are plain. The outer walls are plain. The existence of two apsidal edifices suggest the pattern adopted from the early Saiva temples of Nagarjunakonda.

Monument No:35

Monument Name:REMAINS OF THE BURIED JAIN TEMPLE

Location: Danavulapadu

Brief History:
The remains of a Jaina temple are ideally situated on the left bank of river Pennar. This temple consists of a square brick shrine of 4 meters square without roof and a small ante-chamber in front. The usage of large sized bricks (52 c.m. x 27 c.m. x 10 c.m.) for its construction suggests its early date. This idea is confirmed by the inscription of 13th century A.D. in the temple in the neighbouring village of 'Devagudi', which refers to a Jaina temple at this place. The availability of lead coins and a later gold coin at the place is a further confirmation of an early origin of the site. Inside the shrine is a huge (3 meters) monolithic white lime stone image of Jaina Tirthankara with sevenhooded Naga over the head.

Monument No:36

Monument Name:
FORT WITH ENCLOSED ANCIENT BUILDINGS, MADHAVAPERUMAL TEMPLE, TOWER KNOWN AS MADARASALA

Location: Gandikota

Brief History:
The name 'Gandikota' is comprised of two Telugu words 'Gandi' a gorge and 'Kota' a fort and in these lie the interest and importance of the place possesses. Tradition asserts that the fort as well as some Hindu temples inside, were first built by a chief called Kapa Maharaja who preceded the Vijayanagara kings in 13th century A.D. The Vijayanagar sovereign Harihara is credited with the construction of the fort as it now stands and founded the temple of Vishnu. After the Vijayanagara rule, it went into the hands of Golkonda Kings. In the time of Meerjumla the fortifications were greatly enlarged and strengthened. The beautiful Juma Masjid here was also built by him. Early in the 18th century it passed on to the hands of Cuddapah Nawabs. In 1780 the fort presumably fell into the hands of Haidar Ali or Tipu Sultan. Finally in 1800 A.D. it was ceded to the British by a treaty with the Nizam. The fortifications are extensive having nearly 5 miles circumference, contains a number of both residential and religious buildings. Regarding one of the Hindu temples inside the fort, the great Historian Ferista tells us that in the time of Vijayanagara rule nearly 100,000 Hindus used to make an annual pilgrimage and offer gifts of great value. The scenic beauty of the place is enhanced by the deep gorges and flowing Pennar river nearly 200 - metres below amidst steeply cut hill ranges and greenary.

Monument No: 37

Monument Name: BHIMESVARASVAMI TEMPLE

Location: Pushpagiri (Hamlet of Kotluru)

Brief History :
This temple faces east and it consists of a central shrine, ardha-mandapa and a pillared mahamandapa. On stylistic grounds it belongs to later Chalukyan or early Yadava period i.e., 12-13th century A.D. The carvings on the typical door-jambs and lintels and the sculptures of Dvarapalas are in typical late Chalukyan style. Again the Sikhara is of the usual Dravida order.

Monument No: 38

Monument Name: INDRANATHESVARASVAMI TEMPLE

Location: Pushpagiri (Hamlet of Kotluru)

Brief History:
This temple situated on the castern bank of the river Pennar and to the north of the Pushpagiri village. The temple complex is within a compound wall with gopura entrance at the south which is ruined. The super structure of the gopura is in ruins. The main temple faces the east and consists of garbhagriha, an antarala and a pillared mandapa with Devil shrine on the northern wall facing the south. There is a mahamandapa with 32 pillars, which is connected to the entrance of the main temple. The central four pillars form the central part of the sabhamandapa. The other sixteen pillars of the mandapa rest upon the raised platforms which have the kakshasana platforms. The temple is devoid of any sculptures. The adhishthana and the outer wall protions of the main shrine and antarala bear simple moulded designs. On eastern side, adjacent to the eastern wall of the mandapa there is a nandi mandapa with four pillars. On south-west corner of the temple there is a mandapa with fourteen pillars probably constructed to perform rituals. The super structure of the shrine is a tritala vimana of the Dravida order containing the kuta, panjara and sala sikhara models. There are a number of inscriptions on the west and south upapitha. On stylistic grounds this temple can be datable to late Chalukyan period.

Monument No: 39

Monument Name: KAMALASAMBHAVESVARASVAMI TEMPLE

Location: Pushpagiri (Hamlet of Kotluru)

Brief History :
In style and architectural features it appears to be earlier than the Siva Kesava group, and may be considered as the earliest on the eastern bank of the Pennar river.


Monument No: 40

Monument Name: RAGHAVESVARASVAMI TEMPLE

Location: Pushpagiri (Hamlet of Kotluru)

Brief History:
This temple, in plan and elevation resembles the early Chola temples and it consists of central shrine and mukha-mandapa. The outer walls of the shrine and mukha-mandapa are fitted with the sculptured niches. The eaves of the roof bear kudu decoration.


Monument No: 41

Monument Name: SIVAKESAVASVAMI TEMPLE

Location: Pushpagiri (Hamlet of Kotluru)

Brief History:
On stylistic grounds this temple belongs to late Chalukyan or early Yadava period i.e., 12-13th century A.D. but the Channa Kesava image inside the shrine is a later addition. The finest sculptures on the outer walls of the temple are of late Chalukyan or early Yadava period.

Monument No: 42

Monument Name: TRIKOTESVARASVAMI TEMPLE

Location: Pushpagiri (Hamlet of Kotluru)

Brief History:
The main central shrine of the Trikuta temple (i.e. three Sikhara temple) faces east and it has adjacent shrine one on either side. The shrine on the south has an image of Umamahesvara and the remaining two are enshrined with a Linga in each. The antaralas of these three shrines are connected with a common mahamandapa in front. The style of these temples is later Chalukyan i.e., 11-12th century A.D.

Monument No: 43

Monument Name:VAIDYANATHASVAMI TEMPLE

Location: Pushpagiri (Hamlet of Kotluru)

Brief History:
On stylistic grounds this temple dates back to 13-14th century A.D. The main shrine faces west and it has an ardha-mandapa and maha-mandapa. In the maha-mandapa is an image of Uma-Maheswara, stylistically assignable to about 13th century A.D. The pillars of the enclosed mandapa are of simple design and may be assigned to about the late Yadava or early Vijayanagara period. The Sikhara has undergone renovations.

Monument No: 44

Monument Name:SAUMYANATHA TEMPLE

Location: Nandaluru

Brief History:
This temple is of immense antiquity and was formerly in great repute. It contains on its walls no less than fifty-four inscriptions dating from the 11th century to Vijayanagara times, from which much information of historical value has been gleaned.

Monument No: 45

Monument Name: ANCIENT VILLAGE SITE

Location: Peddamudiyam

Brief History:
This is the ancient Mudi Vemu Agrahara, the place famous as an early Chalukyan home. The extensive mound lies west of the village. It has yielded artifacts from Neolithic times (New stone age) in the form of ground stone axes, lead coins of 2nd century A.D. Perhaps belonging to early Andhra Kings, the structural temples from Chalukyan times containing Kanarese inscription of western Chalukyan King Vikramaditya VI, two smaller inscriptions of Chola of an older date and Telugu inscription of Vijayanagara King Sadasiva. A group of small temples, Mukkantisvara, Narasimha Svami and Vishnu are located here, containing the above cited inscriptions. The Inscriptional evidence refers to this village as an historical place, which gave birth to a prince and founder of the Chalukyan dynasty, whose descendants ruled a great part of the Deccan for more than seven centuries. Most noteworthy are the Trimurti cult objects found from the ancient mounds at this place.

Monument No: 46

Monument Name: KODANDARAMA TEMPLE

Location: Peddamudiyam

Brief History:
This temple which faces south consists of the central shrine the antarala and the sixteen pillared mahamandapa. The door jambs of the Antarala and the garbha-griha are provided with the figures of Jaya, Vijaya as Dvarapalas. The central four pillars of mahamandapa are beautifully carved and highly ornamented. On stylistic grounds the date of this temple may be assigned to late Chalukyan period.

Monument No: 47

Monument Name: MUKUNDESVARA TEMPLE WITH INSCRIPTIONS

Location: Peddamudiyam

Brief History:
This temple consists of a garbhagriha and an enclosed mukhamandapa in front. The outer walls bear sculptures like Bhikshatanamurti, Lingodbhava, Dakshinamurti, Sada Siva, Rama, Lakshmana, Dikpalas and Kiratarjuna episode etc. These sculptures are executed in Late Chalukyan similar to those at Pushapagiri. The platform in front of temple is a modern addition.

Monument No: 48

Monument Name: OLD VISHNU TEMPLE WITH INSCRIPTIONS

Location: Peddamudiyam

Brief History:
This temple comprises a sanctum sanctorum,an antarala and mahamandapa in front. The doorframes of both the central shrine and the antarala are similar in style with purna kumbha decoration at the bases, and the lintels are decorated with Gajalakshmi motif. The central pillars of the mahamandapa are exquisitely carved with geomatrical designs and sculptures. On stylistic grounds this temple can be assigned to the early Yadava period i.e. 13th century A.D.

Monument No: 49

Monument Name: NARASIMHA TEMPLE

Location: Peddamudiyam

Brief History:
NARASIMHA TEMPLE : has a plain exterior having two piers with couchant lion bases like those of the pallava temples of Kanchi. The old idol has been replaced by a fresh one.



Monument No: 50

Monument Name: ATHIRALA PARASURAMA TEMPLE

Location: Poli

Brief History:
This temple consists of a square sanctum with an extended pillared mandapa all around. The summit of the central shrine takes the form of a small Buddhist Chaitya with the usual wagon-vaulted roof with an apsidal end. This particular type of roof in well exemplified in some of the monolithic temples at Mahabnalipur. It is quite obvious that the pillared hall is a latter addition.The inscriptions recorded on the walls of the pillared hall and on the slabs at the main entrance are of Chula and vijayanagara periods.

Monument No: 51

Monument Name: FORT WITH ANCIENT BUILDINGS ENCLOSED THEREIN

Location: Sidhout

Brief History:
The historical interest of Siddhout centres in its fort, which is picturesquely situated on the left bank of river Pennar. Inside the fortifications are to be seen traces of many Hindu temples of which, Siddheswarasvami, Siddhavateswarasvami and Kanganathasvami temples are worthy to note, Early in the 17th century Anantaramaraju a powerful prince of Malti family gave orders that the temples should be surrounded with a strong compound wall which is confirmed by the inscription engraved on the south-east side of the fort wall. This became the nucleus of the present fort which was built by Abdul Alam Khan, Nawab of Cuddapah, about 1755 A.D. A moat was dug and water let into it from Pennar. The same Nawab constructed a mosque and a residence for himself inside the fort. It was in the Siddhout Fort that the Nawab Alam Khan was finally captured by Haidar Ali in 1779 and sent to Srirangapatnam as a prisoner and the fort was pulled down. The old fort shows traces of both Hindu and Mahamadan architecture.

Monument No: 52

Monument Name: VISVANATHASVAMI TEMPLE

Location: Sivalpalle

Brief History:
This temple is situated on the western bank of the river pennar and 4 kms south of the Pushpagiri village. The temple consists of the garbhagriha, an antarala and a closed pillared mukhamandapa, with Devi shrine attached to its southern wall. The temple is built on a raised grounds, facing west. It has an enclosed wall having pillared cloister all along both internally and externally and gopuras on west and north sides. The main one is on the western side. The mukhamandapa has 16 pillars without any mouldings. The other 12pillars of the mandapa rest upon raised platforms in all the three sides, which have the kakshasanas. The adjacent Devi shrine also consists of garbhagriha and a small pillared portico. The pillars which are infornt of this shrine has tow squares with octogonal shaft in the middle with cut-corbels. The roof portion of the antarala and mukhamandapa are flat. The super structure of the main shrine and the Devi shrine are built of brick and lime plaster and are of dvitala vimana of Dravida order with receding tiers consisting of haras, of kuta and panjaras.

Monument No: 53

Monument Name: SRI KODANDARAMASVAMI'S TEMPLE AND ADJOINING BUILDINGS

Location: Vontimitta

Brief History:
Originally this temple consists of a central shrine, an attached small pillared hall in front. Later, the grand pillared mandapa. The lofty gopura and the high enclosure walls were added during the Vijayanagara rule. Out of the other two pillared mandapas existing inside the court yard the larger one in the place where the Utsavavigrahams are decorated during the festival and the smaller one is the kalyana mandapa. The great significance of this temple lies in the Mula Vigrahas - Rama, Lakshmana and Sita, in the garbhagriha and Anjaneya does not find place, like Bhadrachalam.